TOPS-2 Test of Problem Solving 2: Adolescent

Linda Bowers, MA, SLP, Rosemary Huisingh, MA, SLP, and Carolyn LoGiudice, MA, CCC-SLP

Purpose: Assesses critical thinking based on students’ language strategies using logic and experiences
Format: Paper and pencil
Time: 40 minutes

Qualification level: B

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Use the TOPS-2: Adolescent to determine how to help teens with language impairments related to the process of thinking, for whom making good decisions and solving problems appropriatelymay be difficult tasks.

  • Focuses on the following cognitive processes: understanding/comprehension, analysis, interpretation, self-regulation, evaluation, explanation, inference, insight, decision making, intent/purpose, problem solving, and acknowledgment.
  • Uses a natural context of problem-solving situations related to adolescent experiences: Making Inferences, Determining Solutions, Problem Solving, Interpreting Perspectives, and Transferring Insights.
  • Test items presented verbally with the printed stimulus from the Reading Passages Book visible to students.
  • The Examiner’s Manual contains a Discussion of Performance section, which merges test results with remediation strategies.
  • Item pool (N = 526) and standardization (N = 1,051) studies represent the U.S. Census for race, gender, age, and educational placement. An additional 138 individuals with language disorders were included in the validity studies.

Additional information


Kits, Manuals, books, and equipment, Forms and booklets


10851-KT TOPS-2: Adolescent Test Kit includes TOPS-2: Adolescent Examiner's Manual, Reading Passages Book, and 20 Test Forms, 10852-RF TOPS-2: Adolescent Test Forms (pkg/20)