Use the TOPS-2: Adolescent to determine how to help teens with language impairments related to the process of thinking, for whom making good decisions and solving problems appropriatelymay be difficult tasks.
- Focuses on the following cognitive processes: understanding/comprehension, analysis, interpretation, self-regulation, evaluation, explanation, inference, insight, decision making, intent/purpose, problem solving, and acknowledgment.
- Uses a natural context of problem-solving situations related to adolescent experiences: Making Inferences, Determining Solutions, Problem Solving, Interpreting Perspectives, and Transferring Insights.
- Test items presented verbally with the printed stimulus from the Reading Passages Book visible to students.
- The Examiner’s Manual contains a Discussion of Performance section, which merges test results with remediation strategies.
- Item pool (N = 526) and standardization (N = 1,051) studies represent the U.S. Census for race, gender, age, and educational placement. An additional 138 individuals with language disorders were included in the validity studies.