ERA Early Reading Assessment

Donald D. Hammill, EdD, Nils A. Pearson, PhD, Wayne P. Hresko, PhD, and John J. Hoover

Purpose: Screens young children for reading problems
Format: Paper and pencil
Age range: 4 years to 7 years
Time: 10-15 minutes

Qualification level: B

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Easily administered and norm-referenced, the ERA is a screening test designed to identify young children (ages 4-7.11 years) who have reading problems.

Measure both early manifestations of reading and requisite skills that lead to reading

  • Three core subtests (Written Word Vocabulary, Rapid Orthographic Naming, and Silent Orthographic Efficiency) measure print competence pertaining to the alphabet, word identification, and word comprehension using both silent and oral formats.
  • Supplemental oral language subtests measure important non-print correlates of reading: Phonological Awareness measures the ability to discriminate among and manipulate phonemes, and Receptive Vocabulary measures understanding of common vocabulary.
  • The Early Reading Index (ERI) is a normative score formed by combining the results of the core subtests. The most reliable score on the test, the ERI is the most clinically useful score on the ERA and has neither floor nor ceiling effects at any age level.

Reliable and empirically validated

  • Normed on a representative sample of 1,001 children from eight states.
  • Reliability coefficients for all subtests exceed .80. The reliability for the ERI is .94, indicating near-perfect reliability.
  • Evidence is presented to show that the ERI can be used effectively to screen for poor readers. The results from a binary classification analysis showed a sensitivity index of .81 and a specificity index of .83; only five false positives were identified. The value of .92 reported for the ROC curve is considered excellent.

Additional information


Kits, Manuals, books, and equipment, Forms and booklets


10205-KT ERA Complete Kit includes ERA Examiner’s Manual, 25 Examiner Record Forms, 25 SOE Student Record Forms, Picture Book, and RON Stimulus Cards, 10206-TM ERA Examiner’s Manual, 10207-RF ERA Examiner Record Forms (25), 10208-RF ERA SOE Student Record Forms (25)